GRAMMAR

 

 

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A sort of general introduction to English Basic Grammar


Hints at verbs forms and their main characteristics - hints at nouns -

 

TABELLA

tabella

ILVERBO

Osservazioni personali:

Il verbo inglese ha tre forme:

-INFINITO ---> TO WORK, TO GO DALLA CUI FORMA BASE (WORK, GO) DERIVANO PRESENTE, FUTURO, IMPERATIVO, GERUNDIO.

-PASSATO ---> WORKED, WENT DA CUI SI FORMA IL PASSATO REMOTO.

-PARTICIPIO PASSATO ---> WORKED, GONE DA CUI SI FORMANO I TEMPI  COMPOSTI. SONO REGOLARI I VERBI CHE FORMANO IL PASSATO E IL PARTICIPIO PASSATO AGGIUNGENDO -ED ALLA FORMA BASE DELL'INFINITO (SENZA TO): LOVE -- LOVED, CORRECT - CORRECTED ; SONO IRREGOLARI GLI ALTRI .

N.B. NELL'AGGIUNGERE LA DESINENZA -ED, SI SEGUONO ALCUNE NORME ORTOGRAFICHE:

1.        SE L'INFINITO TERMINA IN -E, QUESTA CADE : TO USE, USED, USED.

2.        SE L'INFINITO TERMINA IN -Y PRECEDUTA DA CONSONANTE, LA  «Y»SI  TRASFORMA IN «I»: TO STUDY             STUDIED, STUDIED  MA:

         TO  PLAY, PLAYED, PLAYED

3.       SE L'INFINITO TERMINA CON UNA CONSONANTE PRECEDUTA DA UNA SOLA VOCALE ED MONOSILLABICO,  LA CONSONANTE SI RADDOPPIA:

          TO STOP, STOPPED, STOPPED.............

 

 


TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE  VERBS

-Some verbs in English are transitive - they are followed by an object.

e.g. He bought a dictionary.Look out for like and want don't say `Yes, I want.' or `Yes, I like.'

-Some verbs are intransitive - they are not followed by an object.

e.g. Peter laughed.

-Some verbs can be transitive or intransitive in different situations.

e.g. John stopped a taxi. The taxi stopped.

A good dictionary will tell you if a verb is intransitive or transitive or both.

e.g. buy [ T ] laugh [ I ] stop [ I; T ]

Remember that an intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object but it can be followed by other words

e.g. Peter laughed when he saw my hat.

 


 

 FORMA ABITUALE E PROGRESSIVA DEI VERBI

LA FORMA ABITUALE SI ESPRIME COL PRESENTE SEMPLICE;

l'AZIONE CHE SI STA SVOLGENDO NEL MOMENTO IN CUI SI PARLA SI ESPRIME COL PRESENTE PROGRESSIVO.

LA FORMA ABITUALE E LA FORMA PROGRESSIVA ESISTONO IN INGLESE PER TUTTI I TEMPI.

 

N.B. NON AMMETTONO GENERALMENTE LA FORMA PROGRESSIVA I VERBI CHE ESPRIMONO:

 

1. PERCEZIONI FISICHE E SENTIMENTI

    TO HEAR = udire   O SEE = vedere

    TO LIKE = piacere  TO HATE = odiare  TO LOVE = amare

2.PROCESSI MENTALI

   TO KNOW = sapere  TO THINK = pensare  TO BELIEVE = credere

3. STATO:     TO  BE = essere     TO SEEM = sembrare

 


MULTIWORD VERBS

Some verbs are made from more than one word:

e.g. She looked up 'chock-a-block' in her dictionary.

In this sentence up does not have its normal meaning; it ispart of the verblook.Some multiword verbs are transitive and some are intransitive. If the multiword verb is transitive you need to know where to put the object when the object is a pronoun like it or them. Look at the position of the object pronoun in the following examples:

She lookedit up in her dictionary. not She looked up it.

He looked after them. not  He  looked them after.

              

A good dictionary will give an example to tell you which kind of transitive multiword verb it is.

e.g. look >something up   >look after something or somebody

If you would like to know more about these verbs, look them up in a good grammar book under phrasal and prepositional verbs.

 

 

 



COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Some nouns in English are uncountable. This means that they have no plural, two moneys or terrible weathers.It also means they are not used with the indefinite article a/an.

e.g. You cannot say a money or a weather.

Compare the following:

         Countable                                    Uncountable

Did he ask many questions?           Is there any news?

I want to get a dictionary.                  We're having terrible weather.

I'd like an apple/some apples.         I'd like some butter.

She wanted an answer.                    She wanted some information.

I'm going to have a good time.         I'm going to have some fun.

Have you got a five-pound note?     Did he have much money?

 

 A good dictionary will tell you if a noun is uncountable. Some dictionaries use nu for uncountable nouns and nc  for countable  nouns.

e.g. money [U], weather [U] apple [C],dictionary [C]

 


 

 

 

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