1837-1901 Emperess of India 1876→ industries + trade = economical and territorial growth,
BUT imbalanced society: town expansion + political reforms +poverty
Reform Bill 1832 (
property ownership necessary to vote ) → The Chartist Movement: 6 points, 3 times rejected 1918 → vote for all men 1928 → vote
for all women
1851 → The Great Exhibition
agriculture and textile to industries = mechanisation + urbanization ( steam engine,
railway system, telephone, mail service, printing,
modern hospitals, metropolitan police…)
The Corn Laws = high prices depending on import taxes → repealed by R.
Peel in 1846
The Poor Laws = parish-run workhouses
Gladstone ( first Tory, then Liberal ) → free trade, reforms’ promoter (religion,
↓ B. Disraeli ( Tory ) →
nationalist and patriotic
Independent Labour Party 1893
OF WORKING CLASSES (in order to avoid Revolutions and increase work force for
Education Act 1870
and Trade Union Act 1871
Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies 1897 → Women’s Social and Political Union → Feminism
The Fabian Society → Socialism (
Labour Party )
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
The Victorian Novel → realism + entertainment;
instalments in newspapers →linearity
of the plot →The
Bildungsroman: →omniscent narrator
C.Dickens →whole panorama of social classes, critical in
the content, brilliant in the style
Bronte ( Jane Eyre
) E. Bronte ( Wuthering Heights)
→extreme feelings, moods and situations
G. Eliot →Middlemarch: social issues from a psychological
Thackeray →Vanity Fair : shallowness of the Victorian
Hardy →Tess of the D’Urbervilles: pessimism, crisis in ethical and social
H. James →The
portrait of a lady : American vs British society
Fiction : R. Kipling
Prose: E. A. Poe, N. Hawthorne, H.
Victorian Poetry→A. Tennyson (rest of Romanticism )
Browning ( towards Modernism )
Arnold (social criticism )
(rebellion and decadentism, scholarship and aesthetism, atheism and immoralism)
E. B. Browning (female role in society and politics )
Rossetti ( religion vs erotism = Victorian contradictions )
Pre-raphaelitism→1848- 1850 : revaluation of the 13th and 14th c. in Italian art,
medieval aesthetism ( J. Ruskin ), towards Art for Art’s sake
Nature depiction against
Industrialisation and materialism + sensuality against Puritanism + mysticism
against religious crisis in Victorianism.
Poetry : W. Whitman, E. Dickinson
The Victorian Drama→ MELODRAMAS:
from the Medieval Morality plays, schematic and superficial with actors-managers.
HALLS: among working classes, parodies
PLAYHOUSES: rich settings on
the stage which could be changed→ realism
Wilde: witty comedies, humorous social satire, subtle
irony, absurd dialogues, paradoxical language, importance of beauty above any
other moral values.
Shaw : controversial
works against censorship, criticism against the establishment, theatre as a
means for political change and social improvement, realism ( Ibsen’s middle class
ESEMPIO DI TRATTAZIONE SINTETICA PER LA SIMULAZIONE DELLA
ROMANTIC AGE IS ALSO REFERRED TO AS THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS. EXPLAIN WHY
AND BRIEFLY INDICATE HOW THE MOST INFLUENTIAL REVOLUTIONS OF THAT PERIOD
CONCERNED BRITISH LITERATURE.
historical period a lot of political, social and economic changes took place
all around/in Europe. The most meaningful/crucial events are: the American
Revolution (1775-1783), the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Napoleonic
wars (1796-1815). They represent/are usually quoted as reference points for
Romanticism, as their emphasis on freedom and democracy helped the rise of this
literary movement and its future developments. (E. Burke vs T. Paine at first,
W. Blake, S. Coleridge and W. Wordsworth later, P. B. Shelley at the end) 60
social point of view, the main changes occurred as a consequence of the
Industrial Revolution which led to an increase in the general wealth of the
nation, but at the same time/also, caused several problems especially in the
lower classes. (W. Blake ) 42 words
revolution(1789-1799) : equality,
justice and freedom for all human beings.
The Lyrical Ballads.
American Revolution(1775-1783):political, economical, social, religious,
moral and ethical Independence. P.
Industrial Revolution(1760- ):same rights for each worker also in
terms of different social roles. W. Wordsworth, J.
ferments converged on/brought to Romanticism : individual poetic expressions
all worth the same consideration with the consequent revaluation/rediscovery of
instincts and passions and feelings.
Wars, Massacres and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century
Year-by-Year Death Toll: