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My students' most frequent doubts

The time - some reference tables of English terms - some peculiarities : specimen

       

WHAT TIME IS IT? = CHE ORA E'?

IT IS ONE O'CLOCK = e' l'una

IT IS NINE O'CLOCK = sono le nove

N.B. LE SIGLE A.M. E P.M., CHE TALVOLTA SEGUONO L'ORA, STANNO PER <ANTE MERIDIEM> E <POST MERIDIEM> E INDICANO LE ORE ANTIMERIDIANE E POMERIDIANE.

FROM 9 A.M. TO 4 P.M. = dalle 9 del mattino alle 4 del pomeriggio

 


TABLE 1: NOUN  +  VERB

Noun

Verb

Noun

Verb

action

act

expansion

expand

advertisement

advertise

explanation

explain

advertising

advertise

flight

fly

appointment

appoint

food

feed

argument

argue

formation

form

arrival

arrive

improvement

improve

association

associate

inheritance

inherit

blood

bleed

injection

inject

break-in

break into

installation

install

breakdown

break down

insurance

insure

breath

breathe

knowledge

know

choice

choose

loss

lose

complaint

complain

meaning

mean

concentration

concentrate

memory

memorise

cultivation

cultivate

permission

permit

delivery

deliver

persuasion

persuade

departure

depart

promotion

promote

discussion

discuss

pronunciation

pronounce

election

elect

publication

publish

enquiry

enquire

reduction

reduce

examination

examine

refusal

refuse

excess

exceed

registration

register

exhibition

exhibit

retirement

retire

revision

revise

understanding

understand

saving

save

vaccination

vaccinate

signature

sign

warning

warn

spelling

spell

weight

weigh

television

televise

 

 

 


TABLE 2: NOUN + ADJECTIVE

Noun

Adjective

Noun

 UP TO YOU

accident

accidental

ice

 

activity

active

importance

 

adventure

adventurous

industry

 

aggression

aggressive

innocence

 

alcoholism

alcoholic

intelligence

 

anger

angry

jealousy

 

brightness

bright

law

 

cloud

cloudy

laziness

 

confidence

confident

legibility

 

conservation

conservative

length

 

convenience

convenient

literacy

 

cruelty

cruel

logic

 

danger

dangerous

medicine

 

darkness

dark

middle-age

 

disaster

disastrous

mist

 

economics

economic

monotony

 

efficiency

(in)efficient

music

 

fitness

fit

noise

 

fog

foggy

old age

 

guilt

guilty

optimism

 

harm

harmful/harmless

patience

 

heat

hot

pessimism

 

humidity

humid

politeness

 

politics

political

safety

 

pornography

pornographic

secret

 

possibility

(im)possible

shower

 

practicality

(im)practical

similarity

 

pregnancy

pregnant

strength

 

productivity

productive

stress

 

punctuality

punctual

stupidity

 

rationality

(ir)rational

sun

 

regularity

(ir)regular

taste

 

religion

religious

violence

 

responsibility

(ir)responsible

weakness

 

rust

rusty

wind

 

   

 

 


TABLE 3: COUNTRY - NATIONALITY - THE PEOPLE - A PERSON

 

 

Country

Nationality

The people

A person

America

American

The Americans

An American

Argentina

Argentinian

The Argentinians

An Argentinian

Belgium

Belgian

The Belgians

A Belgian

Brazil

Brazilian

The Brazilians

A Brazilian

Britain

British

The British

A Briton

China

Chinese

The Chinese

A Chinese

Denmark

Danish

The Danes

A Dane

Egypt

Egyptian

The Egyptians

An Egyptian

England

English

The English

An Englishman/woman

Finland

Finnish

The Finns

A Finn

France

French

The French

A Frenchman/woman

Germany

German

The Germans

A German

Greece

Greek

The Greeks

A Greek

Holland

Dutch

The Dutch

A Dutchman/woman

India

Indian

The Indians

An Indian

Iran

Iranian

The Iranians

An Iranian

Iraq

Iraqi

The Iraqis

An Iraqi

Ireland

Irish

The Irish

An Irishman/woman

Israel

Israeli

The Israelis

An Israeli

Italy

Italian

The Italians

An Italian

Japan

Japanese

The Japanese

A Japanese

Korea

Korean

The Koreans

A Korean

Mexico

Mexican

The Mexicans

A Mexican

Norway

Norwegian

The Norwegians

A Norwegian

Peru

Peruvian

The Peruvians

A Peruvian

Portugal

Portuguese

The Portuguese

A Portuguese

Russia

Russian

The Russians

A Russian

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian

The Sauriis

A Saudi

Scotland

Scottish

The Scots

A Scotsman/woman

South Africa

South African

The South Africans

A South African

Spain

Spanish

The Spanish

A Spaniard

Sweden

Swedish

The Swedes

A Swede

Switzerland

Swiss

The Swiss

A Swiss

Turkey

Turkish

The Turks

A Turk

Wales

Welsh

The Welsh

A Welshman/woman

 


TABLE 4: NOUN-ADJECTIVE-VERB

 

 

 

Noun

Adjective(s)

Verb

advice

(un)advisable

advise

boredom

bored/boring

bore

comparison

comparable

compare (with)

competition

competitive

compete

creativity

(un)creative

create

death

dead

die

decision

(in)decisive

decide

embarrassment

(un)embarrassed/embarrassing

embarrass

employment

(un)employed

employ

enjoyment

(un)enjoyable

enjoy

excitement

excited/(un)exciting

excite

fright

frightened/frightening

frighten

information

(un)informative

inform

injury

(un)injured

injure

life

alive/living

live

marriage

(un)married

marry/get married

organisation

(dis)organised

organise

photograph

photographic

photograph

preference

preferable

prefer

protection

protective

protect

relaxation

relaxed/relaxing

relax

reliability

(un)reliable

rely (on)

repetition

repetitive

repeat

reservation

(un)reserved

reserve

satisfaction

(dis)satisfied

satisfy

sleep

sleepy/asleep

sleep

tidiness

(un)tidy

tidy

 

 


Particolarita’

As


a = come /come (se)

b = siccome / poiche’

c = altrettanto

d = mentre / quando

e = man mano


As I told you yesterday .../as agreed (come convenuto).

He always speaks as though he were the boss.

As Ann was tired, we stayed at home.

As I am shortsighted I can't play tennis without glasses.

Today is nicer than yesterday, but it isn't as warm.

Dogs are very intelligent animals, but horses are as intelligent.

As I was leaving home, I realised ...

We found a hedgehog as we were working in the garden.

As time went by, my bank account got smaller and smaller.

As the exam drew near, Liz got more and more nervous.


Beside / besides / beyond, ecc.


beside = accanto / di fianco

besides = inoltre / per giunta

beyond = oltre / al di la’

behind = dietro

between = fra

because of = a causa di


She was sitting beside the teacher.

I don't like beer. Besides, this beer is not cold enough.

The unemployment rate has gone beyond 10 %.

There is a vegetable garden behind the house.

The bank is between a pub and a baker's.

We have had to increase our prices by 5 % because of a rise in the cost of raw materials.


Owing to = a causa di

We had to increase our prices by 5% owing to a rise in the cost of raw materials.

Abbiamo dovuto aumentare i prezzi del 5% a causa `di un aumento del costo delle materie prime.


By


a = (con il complemento d'agente)

The house was destroyed by an earthquake. La casa fu distrutta da un terremoto.

b = per mezzo di

by car / by train / by phone / by post
in macchina / in treno / per telefono / per posta

c = accanto

by the door / by him
accanto alla porta / accanto a lui
I go by (o past) Kate's house every day.
Passo davanti / accanto alla casa di Kate tutti i giorni.

d = per / entro / non oltre

We must be there by 7 o'clock.
Dobbiamo essere là per le sette.


Died / dead


Non confondere died (participio passato del verbo die) con I'aggettivo dead. Entrambi traducono l'aggettivo e participio passato 'morto'.

E’ morto mio nonno. (ha cessato di vivere) My grandfather has died.
Guarda! Un uccellino. E’ morto. (e’ privo di vita / non e’ vivo) Look! A bird. It's dead.

 

Dress / wear / put on

vestirsi = dress oppure get dressed

I always dress /get dressed after breakfast.

indossare =           avere indosso wear.      She usually wears jeans.

                                mettersi put on.            Put on your coat. It's cold outside.

 

Foreign / foreigner / stranger


foreign = straniero (aggettivo)                   I like foreign languages very much.
foreigner = straniero (sostantivo)             There are a lot of foreigners in Rome.
stranger = estraneo / forestiero                A: Excuse me, how do I get to the hospital?
                                                                       B: Sorry, I don't know. I'm a stranger here myself


Derivati di SENSE


Senseless = inanimato, privo di sensi, insensato, assurdo
sensible    = assennato, ragionevole, sensato, consapevole
sensitive   = sensibile (skin), sensibile (alla pieta’), sensible data (computer)
sensory    = sensoriale, sensitivo (med)
sensual     = sensuale, voluttuoso
sensuous = sensuoso, sensuale, voluttuoso


Quasi

Circa / pressoche’  = almost          I have almost finished. Ho quasi finito.


Circa / pressoche’ =  nearly   It takes nearly two hours to get there. Ci vogliono circa due ore per arrivarci.


Con valore negativo =   hardly                 Hardly ever / hardly anything. Quasi mai / quasi niente


Forse =  perhaps                Perhaps it's better for him not to know. E’ quasi meglio che non lo sappia.


Come se = as if       She told me off as if she were my mother. Mi sgrido’, quasi fosse mia madre.

 

Abbastanza


Enough = abbastanza dopo l’aggettivo ma prima del nome
Enough money / happy enough . Abbastanza denaro, abbastanza felice.


Quite / Rather
= piuttosto (leggermente negativo)
He was quite/rather crossed. Era piuttosto arrabbiato.


Fairly = piuttosto (leggermente positivo)
The cake was fairly good. Il dolce era piuttosto buono.


Come


as = da, in qualita’ di


as= quanto, comparativo


like = a somiglianza


how= interrogazione


I speak to you as a friend. Ti parlo da amico.
He is as tall as my brother. E’ alto come mio fratello.
He behaves like a gentleman. Si comporta come un gentiluomo.
How are you? Come stai?


Cosií


so + aggettivo/avverbio

You were so brave! Sei stato cosií coraggioso!
Dad cooks so well! Il babbo cucina cosií bene!

such a/an + (agg) + sostantivo numerabile singolare

Such a busy day! Una giornata cosií piena!
This speech was such a disaster! Questo discorso fu un tale disastro!

N.B. such as = come/ad esempio


Solo


a = soltanto       only       She only eats fruit and vegetables. Mangia solo frutta e verdura.

                           just        Just a moment, please! Solo un minuto, per favore!


b = da solo    alone    I'm afraid to go out alone after 11 p.m. Ho paura a uscire da solo dopo le 11 di sera.


                       on one's own               My mother lives on her own. Mia madre vive sola.


                       by oneself               I did it by myself. L'ho fatto da solo.(I did it myself. = L'ho fatto io.)

c = triste e solo        lonely        Some elderly people often feel lonely. Spesso certi anziani si sentono soli.

 

Stesso


(con valore riflessivo) self / -selves . She always talks about herself . Parla sempre di se stessa.

identico = the same        Your car is the same colour as mine. La tua auto e’ dello stesso colore della mia.
il proprio = own        He saw the UFO with his own eyes. Ha visto l'UFO con i suoi stessi occhi.
proprio = very        These were his very words. Queste furono le sue stesse parole / proprio le sue parole.

Ancora, gia’, appena, piu’.


Ancora= still (tempo), more (quantita’), yet (frase negativa)
He is still there. E’ ancora la’
Give me some more. Damme ne ancora.
He hasn’t come yet. Non e’ ancora arrivato.


Gia’= already (tempo affermativa), yet (tempo interrogativa)
I have already read the book. Ho gia’ letto il libro.
Has he arrived yet? E’ gia’ arrivato?


Appena= just (tempo)
I have just arrived. Sono appena arrivato.


Piu’= any/no longer (tempo), any/no more (quantita’), again (ripetizione)
He doesn’t live in Florence any longer. He lives in Florence no longer. Non abita piu’ a Firenze.
I do not want any more cake. I want no more cake. Non voglio piu’ dolce.
Do not do it again. Non farlo piu’.

 

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